Rajasthan, the largest state of India is located in the north-western part of the subcontinent. It is bounded to the north and north-east by the states of Punjab and Haryana, to the east and south-east by the states of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh, to the south-west by the state of Gujarat, and to the west and north-west by Pakistan. The southern part of the state is about 225km from the Gulf of Kutch and about 400 km from the Arabian Sea. Jaipur is the capital city and lies in the east-central part of the state.
The history of Rajasthan is about 5000 years old and the mythological origin of this gigantic land is related to the famous myth of Ram, the seventh incarnation of Lord Vishnu. In the ancient period, Rajasthan was a part of different dynasties including the Mauryan Empire. The first batch of Aryans who came to India settled in the region of Dundhmer and the first inhabitants of this area were the Bhils and the Minas. The earliest Rajput dynasty that emerged around 700 AD was the Gurjara and Partiharas and since then Rajasthan was known as Rajputana (the land of the Rajputs). Soon, the Rajput clan gained supremacy and the Rajputs were divided into 36 royal clans and 21 dynasties. The armed conflicts and the struggle for supremacy among the Parmars, Chalukyas, and Chauhans resulted in a lot of bloodshed.
In the medieval era, the major regions of the state such as Nagaur, Ajmer and Ranthambhore became a part of the Mughal empire, which was headed by Akbar. The most famous Rajput warriors of this era were Rana Uday Singh, his son Rana Pratap, Bhappa Rawal, Rana Kumbha and Prithviraj Chauhan. With the end of the Mughal regime in 1707, the Marathas gained supremacy and captured Ajmer in 1775. The Maratha ascendancy ended in the late 17th century with the arrival of British. The present state of Rajasthan was formed in 1956.